R-alpha-lipoic acid is the R isomer, which is the isomer preferred by the body, so it is more bioavailable. The Na or sodium bound to it allows the compound to remain through the absorption process, which also will improve its bioactivity. Alpha-lipoic acid can benefit by both increasing blood flow and nutrient repartitioning. As blood flow increases and more nutrients are delivered, Na-R-ALA will also keep the body in an anabolic state by downregulating AMP kinase, a “starvation” enzyme, and increasing insulin action.
• Numerous studies, such as Gupte et al. (2009), showed that alpha-lipoic acid can lower blood glucose and improve insulin action, thereby improving carbohydrate delivery to muscle tissue.
• Other studies have shown that alpha-lipoic acid can improve blood flow, thereby increasing nutrient delivery.
• Kim et al. (2004) reported that alpha-lipoic acid reduced AMP kinase, a sensor of low nutrient availability. Therefore, alpha-lipoic acid can increase nutrient delivery and storage by reducing AMP kinase.
Agmatine is well known for enhancing blood flow, but it is also a powerful neurotransmitter that acts on multiple receptors. Importantly, it activates imidazoline receptors in the adrenal glands, which will lower blood glucose and increases beta-endorphin. Beta-endorphin will then increase glucose uptake into skeletal muscle via GLUT4 recruitment independent of insulin, such that agmatine enhances the action of insulin without affecting insulin levels.
• Evans et al. (1997) showed that glucose uptake into skeletal muscle from agmatine sulfate administration occurs both during exercise and at rest.
Berberine is a potent stimulator of nutrient partitioning and glucose transport, and is as effective as many pharmaceuticals that are used to improve insulin sensitivity and blood glucose.
• A meta-analysis (Dong et al., 2012) demonstrated that berberine induces significant benefits on carbohydrate and fat transport and delivery.
• Yan et al. (2015) showed that berberine can significantly improve insulin sensitivity and lower blood lipids more effectively than pioglitazone (a PPAR activator), indicating powerful nutrient repartitioning.
• Other studies (Zhang et al. 2008) supported the results discussed above regarding berberine’s remarkable effects on insulin and glucose.
Banaba Extract (2% Corosolic Acid)
Banaba extract can improve nutrient repartitioning via multiple mechanisms. Carbohydrate uptake into cells is vastly improved while lipid metabolism is regulated such that fat cells shrink simultaneously.
• Corosolic acid can decrease blood sugar within 60 minutes and can reduce fat in the blood, demonstrating its effectiveness at improving nutrient delivery (Miura et al., 2012).
• Judy and colleagues (2003) demonstrated that Banaba extract for two weeks dropped blood glucose by 30%
• Lagerstroemin, an ellagitannin from Banaba leaf (Hattori et al., 2003), induced insulin-like actions by a mechanism different from insulin, which would lead to synergistic benefits with insulin and other compounds, such as agmatine sulfate.
Cinnamon Bark Extract
Cinnamon is well known for its effects on blood glucose and nutrient delivery. Cinnamon increases the activity of endogenous insulin while also acting as an insulin mimetic to synergistically activate glucose transport.
• Broadhurst et al. (2000) demonstrated a 20-fold increase in insulin action with cinnamon extract.
• Multiple studies confirm the ability of cinnamon extract to act as an insulin mimetic.
Trigonella Seed Isolate (40% 4-hydroxyisoleucine)
Trigonella seed, commonly known as fenugreek, has a history of culinary and medicinal use, mostly for improving blood glucose. Both insulin action and muscle glycogen replenishment have been demonstrated in studies.
• Abdel-Barry et al. (2009) observed that fenugreek significantly lowered blood glucose by 13.4% in healthy, young men.
• Gupta et al. (2001) demonstrated that fenugreek improves insulin action and improves blood lipid profiles, which together indicates improved nutrient partitioning.
• Ruby et al. (2005) showed that post-exercise rates of glycogen resynthesis are increased by 63% in trained cyclists, illustrating that fenugreek improves glucose uptake and conversion to muscle glycogen.
Black Pepper Extract (95% Piperine)
Piperine inhibits cytochrome P450 enzymes, which play essential roles in the elimination of many compounds. Therefore, piperine can increase the time that certain compounds stay in the bloodstream, thereby improving their effectiveness. This is especially important for compounds that the body metabolizes quickly, such as ecdysteroids.
Chromium is an essential trace mineral that is required by the body for multiple functions. One of its purposes is to help regulate blood glucose.
• In a meta-analysis, Abdollahi et al. (2013) showed that multiple studies support the effects of chromium supplementation on the reduction of blood glucose, which translates to greater glucose delivery to skeletal muscle.
• in a study by Kim et al. (1997), chromium picolinate improved insulin sensitivity.
• Anderson et al. (1997) demonstrated that chromium can improve both carbohydrate and fatty acid transport into muscle tissue.
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Banaba Extract (2% Corosolic Acid)
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2. Hattori, K., et al., Activation of insulin receptors by lagerstroemin. J Pharmacol Sci, 2003. 93(1): p. 69-73.
3. Judy, W.V., et al., Antidiabetic activity of a standardized extract (Glucosol) from Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves in Type II diabetics. A dose-dependence study. J Ethnopharmacol, 2003. 87(1): p. 115-7.
4. Liu, X., et al., Tannic acid stimulates glucose transport and inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. J Nutr, 2005. 135(2): p. 165-71.
5. Miura, T., S. Takagi, and T. Ishida, Management of Diabetes and Its Complications with Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) and Corosolic Acid. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2012. 2012: p. 871495.
1. Mang, B., et al., Effects of a cinnamon extract on plasma glucose, HbA1c, and serum lipids in diabetes mellitus type 2. European journal of clinical investigation, 2006. 36(5): p. 340-344.
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3. Anderson, R., et al., Isolation and characterization of chalcone polymers from cinnamon with insulin like biological activities. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2006. 84(3): p. 1432-1436.
4. Imparl-Radosevich, J., et al., Regulation of PTP-1 and insulin receptor kinase by fractions from cinnamon: implications for cinnamon regulation of insulin signalling. Horm Res, 1998. 50(3): p. 177-82.
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6. Kirkham, S., et al., The potential of cinnamon to reduce blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Diabetes, obesity and metabolism, 2009. 11(12): p. 1100-1113.
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Trigonella Seed Isolate (40% 4-hydroxyisoleucine)
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2. Abdel-Barry, J.A., et al., Hypoglycaemic effect of aqueous extract of the leaves of Trigonella foenum-graecum in healthy volunteers. East Mediterr Health J, 2000. 6(1): p. 83-8.
3. Losso, J.N., et al., Fenugreek bread: a treatment for diabetes mellitus. J Med Food, 2009. 12(5): p. 1046-9.
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6. Hamza, N., et al., Preventive and curative effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds in C57BL/6J models of type 2 diabetes induced by high-fat diet. J Ethnopharmacol, 2012. 142(2): p. 516-22.
7. Ruby, B.C., et al., The addition of fenugreek extract (Trigonella foenum-graecum) to glucose feeding increases muscle glycogen resynthesis after exercise. Amino Acids, 2005. 28(1): p. 71-6.
Black Pepper Extract (95% Piperine)
1. Bajad, S., et al., Piperine inhibits gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit in rats and mice. Planta Med, 2001. 67(2): p. 176-9.
2. Rao, V.R., et al., Simultaneous determination of bioactive compounds in Piper nigrum L. and a species comparison study using HPLC-PDA. Nat Prod Res, 2011. 25(13): p. 1288-94.
3. Shoba, G., et al., Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Med, 1998. 64(4): p. 353-6.
4. Han, H.K., The effects of black pepper on the intestinal absorption and hepatic metabolism of drugs. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol, 2011. 7(6): p. 721-9.
1. Abdollahi, M., et al., Effect of chromium on glucose and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes; a meta-analysis review of randomized trials. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2013. 16(1): p. 99-114.
2. Kim, D.-S., et al., Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on insulin sensitivity, serum lipids, and body weight in dexamethasone-treated rats. Metabolism, 2002. 51(5): p. 589-594.
3. Anderson, R.A., Chromium as an essential nutrient for humans. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, 1997. 26(1): p. S35-S41.
4. Cefalu, W.T., et al., Characterization of the metabolic and physiologic response to chromium supplementation in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism, 2010. 59(5): p. 755-62.
5. Anton, S.D., et al., Effects of chromium picolinate on food intake and satiety. Diabetes Technol Ther, 2008. 10(5): p. 405-12.
6. Docherty, J.P., et al., A double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory trial of chromium picolinate in atypical depression: effect on carbohydrate craving. J Psychiatr Pract, 2005. 11(5): p. 302-14.