These are the FAQ's and Science behind our nutrient partitioning complex
Take one serving daily, preferably with your highest carbohydrate meal.
To optimize your bulk, try our Bulk stack which combines SlinMax with AlphaMax, MassMax, and IntraMax for total hormonal optimization and performance.
If obesity is an issue, then carbohydrates should be monitored appropriately. For weightlifters, however, carbs provide the main fuel (glycogen) for muscles and promote delivery of amino acids for muscle growth, so they are important for gains.
Before your high carb meal is best, so usually either lunch or dinner, depending on your diet.
In this section we will cover each and every ingredient
R-alpha-lipoic acid is the R isomer, which is the isomer preferred by the body, so it is more bioavailable. The Na or sodium bound to it allows the compound to remain through the absorption process, which also will improve its bioactivity. Alpha-lipoic acid can benefit by both increasing blood flow and nutrient repartitioning. As blood flow increases and more nutrients are delivered, Na-R-ALA will also keep the body in an anabolic state by downregulating AMP kinase, a “starvation” enzyme, and increasing insulin action.
• Numerous studies, such as Gupte et al. (2009), showed that alpha-lipoic acid can lower blood glucose and improve insulin action, thereby improving carbohydrate delivery to muscle tissue.
• Other studies have shown that alpha-lipoic acid can improve blood flow, thereby increasing nutrient delivery.
• Kim et al. (2004) reported that alpha-lipoic acid reduced AMP kinase, a sensor of low nutrient availability. Therefore, alpha-lipoic acid can increase nutrient delivery and storage by reducing AMP kinase.
Agmatine is well known for enhancing blood flow, but it is also a powerful neurotransmitter that acts on multiple receptors. Importantly, it activates imidazoline receptors in the adrenal glands, which will lower blood glucose and increases beta-endorphin. Beta-endorphin will then increase glucose uptake into skeletal muscle via GLUT4 recruitment independent of insulin, such that agmatine enhances the action of insulin without affecting insulin levels.
• Evans et al. (1997) showed that glucose uptake into skeletal muscle from agmatine sulfate administration occurs both during exercise and at rest.
Berberine is a potent stimulator of nutrient partitioning and glucose transport, and is as effective as many pharmaceuticals that are used to improve insulin sensitivity and blood glucose.
• A meta-analysis (Dong et al., 2012) demonstrated that berberine induces significant benefits on carbohydrate and fat transport and delivery.
• Yan et al. (2015) showed that berberine can significantly improve insulin sensitivity and lower blood lipids more effectively than pioglitazone (a PPAR activator), indicating powerful nutrient repartitioning.
• Other studies (Zhang et al. 2008) supported the results discussed above regarding berberine’s remarkable effects on insulin and glucose.
Banaba extract can improve nutrient repartitioning via multiple mechanisms. Carbohydrate uptake into cells is vastly improved while lipid metabolism is regulated such that fat cells shrink simultaneously.
• Corosolic acid can decrease blood sugar within 60 minutes and can reduce fat in the blood, demonstrating its effectiveness at improving nutrient delivery (Miura et al., 2012).
• Judy and colleagues (2003) demonstrated that Banaba extract for two weeks dropped blood glucose by 30%
• Lagerstroemin, an ellagitannin from Banaba leaf (Hattori et al., 2003), induced insulin-like actions by a mechanism different from insulin, which would lead to synergistic benefits with insulin and other compounds, such as agmatine sulfate.
Cinnamon is well known for its effects on blood glucose and nutrient delivery. Cinnamon increases the activity of endogenous insulin while also acting as an insulin mimetic to synergistically activate glucose transport.
• Broadhurst et al. (2000) demonstrated a 20-fold increase in insulin action with cinnamon extract.
• Multiple studies confirm the ability of cinnamon extract to act as an insulin mimetic.
Trigonella seed, commonly known as fenugreek, has a history of culinary and medicinal use, mostly for improving blood glucose. Both insulin action and muscle glycogen replenishment have been demonstrated in studies.
• Abdel-Barry et al. (2009) observed that fenugreek significantly lowered blood glucose by 13.4% in healthy, young men.
• Gupta et al. (2001) demonstrated that fenugreek improves insulin action and improves blood lipid profiles, which together indicates improved nutrient partitioning.
• Ruby et al. (2005) showed that post-exercise rates of glycogen resynthesis are increased by 63% in trained cyclists, illustrating that fenugreek improves glucose uptake and conversion to muscle glycogen.
Piperine inhibits cytochrome P450 enzymes, which play essential roles in the elimination of many compounds. Therefore, piperine can increase the time that certain compounds stay in the bloodstream, thereby improving their effectiveness. This is especially important for compounds that the body metabolizes quickly, such as ecdysteroids.
Chromium is an essential trace mineral that is required by the body for multiple functions. One of its purposes is to help regulate blood glucose.
• In a meta-analysis, Abdollahi et al. (2013) showed that multiple studies support the effects of chromium supplementation on the reduction of blood glucose, which translates to greater glucose delivery to skeletal muscle.
• in a study by Kim et al. (1997), chromium picolinate improved insulin sensitivity.
• Anderson et al. (1997) demonstrated that chromium can improve both carbohydrate and fatty acid transport into muscle tissue.
These are the references to the exact studies, down the page we have created these formulations around.
1. Kim, M.S., et al., Anti-obesity effects of alpha-lipoic acid mediated by suppression of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase. Nat Med, 2004. 10(7): p. 727-33.
2. Namazi, N., B. Larijani, and L. Azadbakht, Alpha-lipoic acid supplement in obesity treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. Clin Nutr, 2017.
3. Al-Ghamdi, M.A., et al., Potential Administration of Lipoic Acid and Coenzyme Q against Adipogensis: Target for Weight Reduction. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med, 2017. 14(1): p. 272-277.
4. Kucukgoncu, S., et al., Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) as a supplementation for weight loss: results from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev, 2017. 18(5): p. 594-601.
5. Li, N., et al., Effects of oral alpha-lipoic acid administration on body weight in overweight or obese subjects: a crossover randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2017. 86(5): p. 680-687.
6. Zembron-Lacny, A., et al., Physical activity and alpha-lipoic acid modulate inflammatory response through changes in thiol redox status. J Physiol Biochem, 2013. 69(3): p. 397-404.
1. Chang, C.H., et al., Increase of beta-endorphin secretion by agmatine is induced by activation of imidazoline I(2A) receptors in adrenal gland of rats. Neurosci Lett, 2010. 468(3): p. 297-9.
2. Hwang, S.L., et al., Activation of imidazoline receptors in adrenal gland to lower plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetologia, 2005. 48(4): p. 767-75.
3. Khan, S., et al., Beta-endorphin decreases fatigue and increases glucose uptake independently in normal and dystrophic mice. Muscle Nerve, 2005. 31(4): p. 481-6.
4. Cheng, J.T., et al., Plasma glucose-lowering effect of beta-endorphin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Horm Metab Res, 2002. 34(10): p. 570-6.
5. Evans, A.A., S. Khan, and M.E. Smith, Evidence for a hormonal action of beta-endorphin to increase glucose uptake in resting and contracting skeletal muscle. J Endocrinol, 1997. 155(2): p. 387-92.
6. Curry, D.L., L.L. Bennett, and C.H. Li, Stimulation of insulin secretion by beta-endorphins (1-27 & 1-31). Life Sci, 1987. 40(21): p. 2053-8.
1. Yan, H.M., et al., Efficacy of Berberine in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. PLoS One, 2015. 10(8): p. e0134172.
2. Dong, H., et al., Berberine in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2012. 2012: p. 591654.
3. Zhang, Y., et al., Treatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia with the natural plant alkaloid berberine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2008. 93(7): p. 2559-65.
4. Perez-Rubio, K.G., et al., Effect of berberine administration on metabolic syndrome, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Metab Syndr Relat Disord, 2013. 11(5): p. 366-9.
Banaba Extract (2% Corosolic Acid)
1. Takagi, S., et al., Effect of corosolic acid on dietary hypercholesterolemia and hepatic steatosis in KK-Ay diabetic mice. Biomed Res, 2010. 31(4): p. 213-8.
2. Hattori, K., et al., Activation of insulin receptors by lagerstroemin. J Pharmacol Sci, 2003. 93(1): p. 69-73.
3. Judy, W.V., et al., Antidiabetic activity of a standardized extract (Glucosol) from Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves in Type II diabetics. A dose-dependence study. J Ethnopharmacol, 2003. 87(1): p. 115-7.
4. Liu, X., et al., Tannic acid stimulates glucose transport and inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. J Nutr, 2005. 135(2): p. 165-71.
5. Miura, T., S. Takagi, and T. Ishida, Management of Diabetes and Its Complications with Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) and Corosolic Acid. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2012. 2012: p. 871495.
1. Mang, B., et al., Effects of a cinnamon extract on plasma glucose, HbA1c, and serum lipids in diabetes mellitus type 2. European journal of clinical investigation, 2006. 36(5): p. 340-344.
2. Jarvill-Taylor, K.J., R.A. Anderson, and D.J. Graves, A hydroxychalcone derived from cinnamon functions as a mimetic for insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 2001. 20(4): p. 327-336.
3. Anderson, R., et al., Isolation and characterization of chalcone polymers from cinnamon with insulin like biological activities. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2006. 84(3): p. 1432-1436.
4. Imparl-Radosevich, J., et al., Regulation of PTP-1 and insulin receptor kinase by fractions from cinnamon: implications for cinnamon regulation of insulin signalling. Horm Res, 1998. 50(3): p. 177-82.
5. Broadhurst, C.L., M.M. Polansky, and R.A. Anderson, Insulin-like biological activity of culinary and medicinal plant aqueous extracts in vitro. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2000. 48(3): p. 849-852.
6. Kirkham, S., et al., The potential of cinnamon to reduce blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Diabetes, obesity and metabolism, 2009. 11(12): p. 1100-1113.
7. Pham, A.Q., H. Kourlas, and D.Q. Pham, Cinnamon supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy, 2007. 27(4): p. 595-599.
Trigonella Seed Isolate (40% 4-hydroxyisoleucine)
1. Kochhar, A. and M. Nagi, Effect of supplementation of traditional medicinal plants on blood glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetics: a pilot study. J Med Food, 2005. 8(4): p. 545-9.
2. Abdel-Barry, J.A., et al., Hypoglycaemic effect of aqueous extract of the leaves of Trigonella foenum-graecum in healthy volunteers. East Mediterr Health J, 2000. 6(1): p. 83-8.
3. Losso, J.N., et al., Fenugreek bread: a treatment for diabetes mellitus. J Med Food, 2009. 12(5): p. 1046-9.
4. Gupta, A., R. Gupta, and B. Lal, Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds on glycaemic control and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double blind placebo controlled study. J Assoc Physicians India, 2001. 49: p. 1057-61.
5. Xue, W.L., et al., Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) extract on blood glucose, blood lipid and hemorheological properties in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2007. 16 Suppl 1: p. 422-6.
6. Hamza, N., et al., Preventive and curative effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds in C57BL/6J models of type 2 diabetes induced by high-fat diet. J Ethnopharmacol, 2012. 142(2): p. 516-22.
7. Ruby, B.C., et al., The addition of fenugreek extract (Trigonella foenum-graecum) to glucose feeding increases muscle glycogen resynthesis after exercise. Amino Acids, 2005. 28(1): p. 71-6.
Black Pepper Extract (95% Piperine)
1. Bajad, S., et al., Piperine inhibits gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit in rats and mice. Planta Med, 2001. 67(2): p. 176-9.
2. Rao, V.R., et al., Simultaneous determination of bioactive compounds in Piper nigrum L. and a species comparison study using HPLC-PDA. Nat Prod Res, 2011. 25(13): p. 1288-94.
3. Shoba, G., et al., Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Med, 1998. 64(4): p. 353-6.
4. Han, H.K., The effects of black pepper on the intestinal absorption and hepatic metabolism of drugs. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol, 2011. 7(6): p. 721-9.
1. Abdollahi, M., et al., Effect of chromium on glucose and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes; a meta-analysis review of randomized trials. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2013. 16(1): p. 99-114.
2. Kim, D.-S., et al., Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on insulin sensitivity, serum lipids, and body weight in dexamethasone-treated rats. Metabolism, 2002. 51(5): p. 589-594.
3. Anderson, R.A., Chromium as an essential nutrient for humans. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, 1997. 26(1): p. S35-S41.
4. Cefalu, W.T., et al., Characterization of the metabolic and physiologic response to chromium supplementation in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism, 2010. 59(5): p. 755-62.
5. Anton, S.D., et al., Effects of chromium picolinate on food intake and satiety. Diabetes Technol Ther, 2008. 10(5): p. 405-12.
6. Docherty, J.P., et al., A double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory trial of chromium picolinate in atypical depression: effect on carbohydrate craving. J Psychiatr Pract, 2005. 11(5): p. 302-14.